The Gaochang Ruins
The Gaochang Ruins is situated 45 kilometers east of Turpan, was the capital city of ancient Uygur kingdom. It is first built in the first century BC of Han Dynasty, the old city lasted for about 1400-1500 years until the year of 1283 the Uygur Kingdom was defeated by the nearby state, they had to give up their capital and moved away. Since then the city has been abandoned. Similar to the layout of Chang An, the capital of Tang Dynasty, it was divided into an outer city and inner city within the walls, and a palace and government compound. The walls of the city are clearly visible. They stood as much as 12 meters thick, formed a rough square with a perimeter of 6 kilometers, and were surrounded by a moat. A large monastery in the south-western part of the city is in reasonable condition, with some of its rooms, corridors and doorways still preserved. Usually, 2-3 hours will be suggested for visiting.